Category Archives: APCD


The second air quality webinar co-sponsored by the Larimer Alliance and Colorado Rising did not fail to meet expectations, and rather soared to new heights, I would say. The following are my comments on the significance of the event, some context to help understand why it came about, and what still needs to happen to fix our air quality problem here in the Front Range.

Lasting a full two hours on Wednesday, June 15, from 6pm to 8pm, the superlative cast of the three presenters and six panelists dove deep into the tangle of regulatory and legislative issues that have confounded so much of public discussion for the past few years. The three presenters — Andrew Klooster of Earthworks, Christiaan von Woudenberg, past trustee with the city of Erie, and Mike Foote, environmental attorney and former legislator — were highly qualified to speak to reasons why there has not been more progress made on enforcing regulations around air quality. Six more panelists participated in the Q&A session afterwards — environmental attorney John McDonagh and Ed Behan with the Larimer Alliance, Sandra Duggan and Cait Brown with Colorado Rising, Detlev Helmig of BoulderAIR, and Broomfield City Council Member Laurie Anderson — who are all also intimately familiar with the twists and turns of how this complex issue has unfolded, and the nuances of why the regulations have been difficult to understand, much less implement.

Loosely titled “What’s In Our Air and What Can We Do About It” the full recording can be viewed here:

Full recording


What is abundantly clear is that 1) the air quality in the Front Range from Denver to Fort Collins has severe ozone problems, and 2) the state regulatory agencies charged with cleaning it up are failing woefully at doing so; so much so, that there is widespread lack of confidence that these agencies can fix their own problems, and will need outside help from the legislature to take curative action.

So, what can we — as in our local city and country governments, as well as the activist community — do about it?

For starters, there are five municipalities that taken the bull by the horns and bought the best technology that money can buy to measure their air quality, and start to build the science-based data that will prove what is causing their ozone pollution, as well as many other pollutants. Frankly, after years of inaction after fracking started to take off in Colorado around 2010, communities realized they would just need to solve their problems themselves, and not look to the state. So what if the state agencies don’t want to help local communities monitor their pollution? Fine! we’ll do it ourselves….


Boulder, Erie, Broomfield, Commerce City and Longmont have each contracted with BoulderAIR to install continuous, real-time air quality monitoring stations with their own funds. Boulder was the first, starting in 2015 at Boulder Reservoir, followed by Longmont, Erie, Broomfield and Commerce City, over several years following. The near-real-time data is published on the Boulder AIR website,, within 15 minutes of it being picked up by the sensors. (Each monitor has a wireless Internet connection which uploads the data continuously.) This is a powerful body of evidence that is of such quality that it has been published in peer-reviewed journal articles, and is, significantly, legally defensible in court. Though costly — depending on the number of measured pollutants, a fixed station and the monitoring equipment costs about $250,000 to a half million dollars to acquire and to run for the first year, and about half of that per year in the following years — the city leaders in those communities have deemed it a worthwhile investment. No other air sampling technology even comes close to the quality of the data from this technology.

There are two state-maintained (i.e. by the CDPHE, the Colorado Department of Public Health and the Environment) ozone monitors in Fort Collins: one on the CSU campus, and the other is located on the extension campus at the end of LaPorte Road. Unfortunately, the data produced by these monitors doesn’t seem readily available; I cannot find them on the CDPHE website. Nonetheless, they have detected some of the highest ozone readings in the state, I have heard. This should come as no surprise, considering the 20,000 plus active O&G wells in Weld County and the prevailing winds blow from east to west. This means the ozone-ladened air from Weld County gets blown over to Larimer County, and then backed up against the Front Range mountains. This has been extensively modeled and proved (though I don’t have the evidence here in the moment.)

These existing CDPHE monitors detect ozone only after it is created; they cannot detect the precursors of ozone, which can come from two sources: exhaust from ICE vehicles (internal combustion engines) or from oil & gas operations. The VOCs (volatile organic compounds) produced from these two distinct sources both react when exposed to strong sunlight, which catalyzes the chemical reaction that forms O3, or ozone. But the two precursors have distinctly different chemical signatures, but it requires a gas chromatograph to tell the difference. A gas chromatograph forms the heart of Boulder AIR monitors, accompanied by an array of other instruments.

Although the Boulder AIR monitoring station stays in one spot, the prevailing winds could come from any direction. How can one stationary monitor deal with shifting winds? Through wind data, of course. This is one of the many essential functions of NOAA, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Agency, performs for us, 24×7, 356 days a year; just take a look at their Wind Map, an amazing feat of scientific measurement and technical engineering. By combining such wind vector data with its own readings of wind direction and velocity, the pollution measurements at the stationary monitor can effectively “see” what direction the wind came from, and therefore infer from what direction the pollutants came.

The results of such wind vector modeling can make for a much more convincing visual graphic than just reading numbers on a page; here is an example of the measurement of ethane at the Boulder Reservoir station showing the direction and intensity of where the ethane came from at some instant in time:

credit: BoulderAIR, Inc.

It is also possible to make animated visualizations of such data, graphically illustrating how the air pollutants are changing in real time. This could become really interesting in the event of a mass pollution release as a result of a field accident — which has happened in the past.


Just as the ghost of a murdered king raised suspicions in Hamlet, the ghost of an honest regulator seems to haunt the Air Pollution Control Division (APCD)…as will become evident below.

The spectre of corruption deep within the APCD hangs over it to this day, and is yet calling out for action from its governing body, the state legislature, to expunge and correct it. Though this reputation has been earned from years of stonewalling citizen requests for more transparency into their work, this was made dramatically evident when a whistle-blower scandal enveloped the state agency at its top levels in March 2021. (Colorado air pollution control managers ordered staff to falsify data and approve permits “at all costs,” whistleblowers say, Colorado Sun, March 30,2021)

Significantly, one fact in the above article is “…”but the state lacks monitoring resources for precise ambient air measurements and has no idea what the cumulative impact is on air quality.” Let’s keep that in mind as this issue moves forward.

This certainly blew the lid off the issue, because within the next month the Attorneys General office launched an investigation within a few weeks following that announcement. (Colorado attorney general launches probe of whistleblowers’ air-pollution control complaints, Colorado Sun, April 26,2021). The AG office was actually required to hire a third party attorney firm, since it cannot investigate the state government itself, since they are the attorney for the state.

But the APCD’s deplorable lapse of honesty in discharging a public trust has played a major role in the deteriorating air quality of the Front Range, which has been out of EPA compliance for ozone since 2004. So far, there has not been any change at the APCD, or any announcements from the third-party investigation by the AG’s office. What the investigation revealed was not sufficient grounds for convicting anyone of a crime, but certainly cast a shadow on the agency and its assistant director, Gary Kaufman. The full report, conducted by a third party law firm since it was an investigation within the Colorado state government, was published by September; but it did not result in any changes at the APCD, as far as anyone can tell.

The full report can be read here: “Report from the independent investigation of the state Air Pollution Control Division released”, September 24, 2021. Unfortunately, most of the suspicious actions are described in obscure legalese, dampening whatever angry rhetoric was being leveled against the APCD, loosening whatever noose was forming around the suspects involved, and providing enough legal wiggle room to avoid any indictments of any individual.

However, as the above evidence indicates, the APCD has not exactly been a paragon of virtue in public relations; in fact, it has earned a notorious reputation for lack of enforcement action against polluters, and stonewalling requests from environmental activist groups, going back for over a decade. Much of this controversy seems to center around Gary Kaufman, the current deputy director. I note with a raised eyebrow that Mr Kaufman was recently employed for a couple of years at Holland & Hart, one of the largest law firms in Denver representing the O&G and mining industry, but that he worked at the APCD for some 11 years before that, as shown on his LinkedIn page. Do I see a revolving door here? This is a blatant pattern of regulatory capture and conflict of interest, which the third party report mentioned with regards to Kaufman. He had been a lawyer working for Newmont Mining before coming to the APCD, where he became involved in the issuing of air quality permits for them. When outside parties pointed out this conflict of interest, Kaufman was removed from reviewing Newmont’s permit. Need I say more?

What all this might indicate is the need for changes in the APCD office coming directly from the legislature in the form of revised legislation, to directly and openly address the issue.


Moving on to the webinar itself, the discussion makes clear that all the best data in the world will not amount to a hill of beans if the regulatory agencies charged with implementing the law are not listening — and that is certainly a big part of the problem.

First to present was Andrew Klooster, a professional videographer with Earthworks, a national environmental activist organization. They provide him with state-of-the-art OGI (optical graphical imaging) cameras, which Mr. Klooster has used to make intense videos of otherwise invisible vapors spewing out of O&G operations in northern Colorado for the last several years. In effect, they show how much the O&G industry lies about its compliance, and brings many angry citizens to a frothing rage at the images of all that methane and VOCs polluting their ambient environment.

This might explain why his presentation itself was so especially focused and intense: he wanted to move the audience to action, and do what they can do: file complaints about their experiences with O&G operations — whether from odors, water pollution, traffic noise, vibrations from seismic exploration, etc. — directly with the COGCC and/or the APCD. He provided information on where to file your complaint and why: to put additional scrutiny on the operator, and build a body of evidence.

Those two URLs are:



If you live in proximity to active O&G operations and feel that you are impacted, you should file a complaint at the above two websites. To advise you on how to do that, please watch Mr. Klooster’s presentation: he walks through the process, and where to pay attention to detail, and how to file a more effective complaint. Mr. Klooster was very emphatic on this point: filing complaints helps! You should not expect a direct response, but know that your testimony will help. I’m sure there must be a way for checking on your filing, but that was not covered in the presentation.

The rest of Mr Klooster’s presentation contained compelling images and videos from OGI images that he personally recorded.


Christiaan Von Woudenberg has lived in Erie with his family and young children for over ten years; so he has been around through the whole fracking issue there. (I should note that Erie is rather unusual because the Boulder/Weld county line runs smack dab through the middle of the town; so, talk about a night and day situation with fracking! ) As a concerned citizen he became more and more agitated to do something about the problem — enough to run for election to the Board of Trustee’s in 2018, and reelection in 2022. However, due to other committments he has taken on, such as head of the Erie Protectors, he had to resign from Erie’s Board of Trustees.

With a background in biology and software development, Mr Von Woudenber went beyond the call of duty by taking the initiative of helping to develop a new mobile app to empower local citizens with regards to air quality. the app would make use of data collected by BoulderAIR monitors, and has received funding for its development through to completion. He walked the audience through an overview of the app in a dispassionate delivery — though the successful implication of such an app could have electrifying results. If anybody with a phone was able to not only check their air quality in real time, but also report what they might be seeing, smelling or otherwise experiencing, this could result in politically powerful body of evidence that would be hard for regulators to ignore. The app is scheduled for launch around fall of 2022.

What the app amounts to is a grass-roots, citizen initiative forced to do what the state regulators at the CDPHE & APCD have refused to do: collect the scientific data that proves where this ozone pollution is coming from with undeniable strength and clarity. As such, it has the potential to set a world-class example of citizens overcoming the entrenched apathy created by decades of regulatory agencies who operated at the direction of the O&G industry that was politically all-powerful until 2019.


The final presenter to speak was Mr. Mike Foote, well known to many of us for his being a primary author of the famous bill, SB-181, and having appeared to speak at many public functions since then. We could not have had a more authoritative voice advising us on what we can do.

What many might not realize about SB-181, is that it was the ten bills that he had run during his eight years in the state legislature; eight of them failed to pass, but the last two did, one of which was SB-181. You might say he had a lot of practice before he finally kicked the field goal that made it through the uprights! One can only imagine the quality of patience and perseverance that it took to accomplish this. (Totally a personal aside, but I was there that day on that historic occasion, March 5, 2019, when Erin Martinez testified before a subcommittee and Mike Foote gave a very well attended press conference on the passage of the bill, which I recorded in the a Facebook post, and was noted in this Colorado Sun article. )

The hopeful tone that Mr Foote was that the law can always be changed, and the large bureaucracies like the CDPHE/APCD are “risk averse” (an underwhelming observation, but correct). He made encouraging sounds about the Precautionary Principle, to shift the burden of proof to industry. Something to think about…

He noted that the APCD added some new personnel during the current administration, and that they have the resources to deal with new roles. A role for interacting with local communities could be created within the CDPHE/APCD. This will require persistence. It takes early scheduling, even a steady presence, and an ongoing relationship with legislators, to have a chance of being heard. If you wait until March to contact them, it’s too late. In June, they are on vacation, burned out. July & August are the calm time of year to contact them. In September & October they are blocking out their own legislative agenda. Forget about anything getting done over the winter holidays.


The panelists then joined the three presenters to answer questions asked by the audience. I have lightly noted what was of interest to me; you should watch the discussion to see what interests you.

Mike Foote took the first question about why can’t Colorado just ban fracking statewide like New York? The short answer is that the politics are quite different here, and O&G has much more political power; Mike never considered a statewide ban to be politically possible.

One question (which sounded like a plea for help) asked if there was any hope of the air quality getting better anytime soon, because they were thinking of moving away? The panelists made a worthy effort of being cautiously optimistic. Laurie Andersen reeled off a string of statistics, Dr Helmig gave a scientific, if roundabout answer, Mr Foote too tried to sound a note of optimism; but then John McDonaugh jumped with an historic perspective. He said he’d been involved in environmental litigation since 1982, back when it looked really, really dark against the momentous industries involved; but we ‘keep fighting the good fight’ for future generations, he strongly advised, and pointed to much progress in air and water pollution, compared to what used to exist in previous decades. (Not sure if these answers really assured the questioner though…)

Christiaan affirmed a beta version of the new mobile app should be ready by ‘Q3’ (that’s third quarter, or July-Sept timeframe). He also panned the PurpleAir app & monitors, which he described as next to useless. Dr Helmig confirmed the lack of scientific accuracy of PurpleAir monitors, which in his experience “caused more harm than good,” by giving off false signals. Sandra asked about the effectiveness of home filters? Dr Helmig said they might be effective, depending on circumstances, as they require good maintenance; but a definite thing to avoid is the use of natural gas in the home.

Of real interest to me is what will it take to get a BoulderAIR station in Larimer County? Laurie Anderson answered that one, saying it was a long slow permitting process in Longmont, but new stations can learn from their experience. (Take note, Larimer Alliance!). Noted that she said it is costly, at about $1 million per year to get good quality data; however, Longmont was able to get part of that paid for by Extraction O&G. (Getting industry to finance paying for part of the cost of monitoring is a prominent goal in Larimer County.)

Dr Helmig confirmed that with additional station there is an added accuracy in the ability of the overall network to pinpoint where prevailing pollution sources lie, and to help identify the short spikes of higher emissions, which can be quite transient, like just for 10 minutes, before it goes away. Only continuous monitoring can capture this; averages, or ‘snapshots’, (such as the Ajax canisters) cannot possibly measure them.

One question directly asked what doesn’t the CDPHE/APCD acknowledge and use BoulderAIR data? Andrew Klooster confirmed this; and they don’t consider any OGI video taken by anyone other than state staff to be valid evidence. This is wrong, and needs to be corrected. Mike Foote agreed: in other areas of the law, it does not take a police officer to be present for a crime to be reported. Allowing community input was a major purpose of SB-181. Andrew and Laurie affirmed this; in the Air Toxics bill that was passed this past session, there was language added to allow BoulderAIR data to be used. (This would be useful to check out…) Christiaan informed everyone that the quality of Andrew’s OGI cameras is of better quality than anything the state has anyway.

Mike addressed the local control issue. It was firmly established that the state regs were the floor, but that any local community could implement a higher level. Ed Behan asked if that applies to existing facilities? Mike answered affirmatively. John jumped in and affirmed that all local cities and counties have equal power as the COGCC to pass their own laws; Mike affirmed this is the case for surface impacts, but ‘downhole activities’ are still regulated by the COGCC.

Then a question about enforcement of air quality regs; and is there a ‘cleanup bill’ necessary? John answered that Larimer County has adopted new, detailed regs; but have been lacking in their enforcement for pre-existing facilities, making the regulations “a dead letter.” In this case, any clean-up regulation won’t solve the problem. No explanation has been forthcoming from any Larimer County officials.

A final question asked can BoulderAIR distinguish between vehicles and O&G precursors that cause ozone? Yes, definitely, answered Dr Helmig.


In conclusion, what do I think the webinar accomplished? Well, that will have to be seen, in how many people watch it, weigh what was discussed and then act on the information. But without a doubt I believed it showed that:

– there is broad agreement among the activist community that we a serious ozone pollution problem, especially in the summer, from Denver to Fort Collins in particular

– that a number of elected officials agree with this, but by no means all, and that this alignment is often falling along party lines

– that SB-181 did not adequately address the issue of air pollution, and how enforcing sanctions against air pollution violations by the O&G industry are difficult at best, non-existent at worst, because this type of enforcement action straddles two agencies, the COGCC and the APCD, and they’ve never had to work together on such cases until SB-181 realigned their priorities, such that now they must work together, but are ill-prepared to do so.

– that further legislative work needs to be done that addresses this particular issue, where it would make sense for staff from both agencies be embedded as legislative aides to help to work out the language and intent of such legislation.

– that such legislation must be developed long prior to the legislative session start in January if it is to have any hope of being passed.

– that the air quality app being developed the Erie Protectors and Mr Von Loudenberg is being eagerly awaited!



Wednesday, June 15 at 6:00 PM

Northern Colorado Air Quality: What Can We Do?

Second in a series of webinars brought to you by

The Larimer Alliance and Colorado Rising

In March, we presented the first in this ongoing series discussing air quality issues along Northern Colorado’s Front Range. In that session, experts detailed the nature of our poor air quality, with discussions of different ways of monitoring it and how it affects everyone’s health. You can view a recording of that informative session at this link. 

A It’s no secret that we have serious issues with air quality in our region, as noted by both the American Lung Association and the US Environmental Protection Agency. The Larimer Alliance and Colorado Rising will once more host an online webinar on Wednesday, June 15, at 6:00 PM. We’ll highlight the nature of our poor air quality and what is being done to get a handle on it. We will feature the following speakers to address the ramifications of monitoring air quality and the advocacy for improved enforcement of relevant regulations:

  • Andrew Klooster: Colorado Field Advocate with Earthworks, and Certified Optical Gas Imaging Thermographer, Andrew uses industry-standard FLIR brand optical gas imaging cameras to document pollution not visible to the naked eye from oil and gas facilities. His field observations and videos of oil and gas operations in Colorado have been seen as part of testimony to state and local regulatory agencies, and have been featured recently in several news stories centered on some particularly problematic facilities.
  • Christiaan Van Woudenberg: As a former Trustee for the Town of Erie, Christiaan was instrumental in establishing a comprehensive air quality monitoring network in Erie to track emissions from local oil and gas sites, as well as regional air quality issues stemming from operations in the rest of Weld County. He is now focused on building an air quality monitoring application to aggregate these data and make them usable for residents across Colorado with a focus on disproportionately impacted communities.
  • Mike Foote: Mike served in the Colorado State Legislature for eight years, six as a State Representative, and two as a State Senator, where he was a key sponsor of Senate Bill 19-181, which altered the mission of the Colorado Oil and Gas Conservation Commission. An attorney for twenty years, Mike is currently operating a public-interest law firm focused on environmental and energy issues, serving individuals, communities, and non-profits working in this complex field.

Following their presentations, our speakers will join in a panel discussion to discuss how to more effectively utilize the data for community alerts and potential enforcement action, as well as to guide future legislative initiatives to continue to meet this challenge. Included in this panel will be:

  • Larimer County Commissioner Jody Shadduck-McNally.
  • Fort Collins City Council Member Tricia Canonico.
  • Broomfield City Council Member Laurie Anderson
  • Noted atmospheric scientist Detlev Helmig

The panel and audience will have the opportunity to raise questions, propose suggested action, and follow through on existing initiatives, such as:

Register for this air quality webinar

At this convenient link


For all you do, our thanks!


Or if you prefer, mail checks made out to Larimer Alliance to

401 E. Prospect Rd.  Fort Collins, CO 80525

Check out relevant events on our Calendar Page!

Recording of March 16 Webinar “Northern Colorado Air Quality”

Online even co-sponsored with Colorado Rising, featuring the following speakers:

Andrew Klooster, Colorado Field Advocate with Earthworks, is an expert videographer and a certified optical gas imaging thermographer. He has been working with local environmental groups in the Front Range for years, has documented many instances of VOC and methane pollution sources in the region, and is very familiar with the situations of many of the afflicted communities.

Dr Cory Carroll, MD, Physicians for Social Responsibility Colorado, will detail health impacts he has seen in his patients from being exposed to ozone, VOCs, and other dangerous air emissions, based on his professional experience with patients.

Dr. Detlev Helmig, CEO of BoulderAIR, will discuss findings from his continuous air quality monitoring study at 5 installations in the Front Range (Boulder, Longmont (2), Erie & Broomfield), which have identified quantity and source of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) contributing to the formation of ozone along the Front Range. Many of these VOCs are toxic and can traced directly to oil and gas operations in the region.

See this link to a YouTube recording of the webinar, which was a resounding success:

Sign on to our petition calling on the City of Fort Collins and Larimer County to establish comprehensive 2/7 real-time air quality monitoring:–XV1viRSpNQ2–XV1viRSpNQ2

Suncor Permits Are Renewed by APCD: How to Commit a Legal Crime

On February 15, the state approved the permit renewal for the Suncor refinery in Commerce City. Clues as to how they were able to justify this decision can be found in the Responses from APCD to Public Comment regarding Suncor.

The lawyers at the APCD have been busy. Their response to Earthjustice is a 103 page report! I found that a little intimidating (which seems to be part of the game we are playing) so I pulled up the response to Commerce City and quickly scanned through the 16 page document. It is a case book example of how legal complexities can be used to obfuscate moral imperatives and excuse regulatory agencies of all accountability. If I were living in the neighborhoods around Suncor, I would be devastated. For many of those people this permit renewal will prove to be a death sentence.

The APCD states repeatedly that the only purpose of the permit is “to improve compliance by requiring recordkeeping, monitoring, reporting and annual compliance certifications.” The implication being that the APCD has no legal authority to shut down the plant. But then who on earth does?

In 2019, the Permanent People’s Tribunal came to following conclusion in their hearings regarding the fracking industry, “The mega-corporations, more wealthy than many nation-states and seen almost universally…as essential ‘growth machines’ providing ‘development,’ have gained a dominant position vis-à-vis states…In effect, they have established a new form of sovereignty or quasi-sovereignty. They do not derive sovereignty from the people nor do they exercise their power on behalf of the people. Rather they operate, according to law, in the interests of the corporation and its major shareholders. Too often this means they are in conflict with the interests of the citizenry and nature, even of the governments who are beholden to them.” 1

Enforcement is primarily dependent on self-reporting from Suncor with the addition of annual inspections and performance test oversight by the state. Unfortunately, we all know how effective “self-reporting” is, or rather isn’t.

A request by Commerce City for increased transparency in reporting elicited the following patronizing response, “While the Division understands that information regarding the Suncor facility is not always easy to understand, many of the reports have specific requirements for what must be reported and legal documents, such as Compliance Orders on Consent (COCs), cannot always be simplified.”

Although there are plans for fence line monitoring to be installed, the response to other forms of community monitoring was discouraging, “Conducting air monitoring in the community may certainly provide useful information but there is no ability under the Title V permit regulations to include new requirements to conduct community air monitoring.”

And it appears that the primary purpose of the fence line monitoring is limited to providing better communications systems in order to let people know when the chronic exposure to airborne toxins to which they are regularly subjected has unexpectedly increased.

The conclusion of the report states that, “The Division is bound by the permitting requirements in Colorado Regulations. The Division is incorporating comments when it is legally appropriate to do so. Unfortunately, there are no provisions under the Title V permitting regulations that allow the addition of many of Commerce City’s suggestions.”

The translation of this statement is that it is legally appropriate to poison people in and around their homes.

Gayla Maxwell Martinez

1 Ed. Kerns, Thomas A. and Moore, Kathleen Dean (2021). Bearing Witness: The Human Rights Case Against Fracking and Climate Change, p. 141.